Heavy artillery, tanks and air force were prohibited. More concentrated groups were found in Czechoslovakia (parts of southern Slovakia), Yugoslavia (parts of northern Délvidék), and Romania (parts of Transylvania). [46] The communist party and communist policies only had real popular support among the proletarian masses of large industrial centers – especially in Budapest – where the working class represented a high proportion of the inhabitants. - Sir Winston Churchill Watch the video now. In addition, 61% of arable land, 74% of public roads, 65% of canals, 62% of railroads, 64% of hard surface roads, 83% of pig iron output, 55% of industrial plants, and 67% of credit and banking institutions of the former Kingdom of Hungary lay within the territory of Hungary's neighbours. The final borders of Hungary were defined by the Treaty of Trianon signed on 4 June 1920. Es ist das erste Mal , dass ein Mann , der den nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg unterzeichneten Friedensvertrag von Trianon ablehnt , unterstützt wird und in eine solch wichtige Position in Europa gewählt wird . N. Layton and Ch. Englische Übersetzung von Trattato del Trianon. A cura della Lega per la revisione del Trattato di Trianon. Cfr. [140], Articles 61–66 stated that all former citizens of the Kingdom of Hungary living outside the newly defined frontiers of Hungary were to ipso facto lose their Hungarian nationality in one year. [20], On 6 April 1917, the United States entered the war against Germany, and in December 1917 against Austria-Hungary. Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia). Rispetto al Regno di Ungheria (già facente parte dell'Impero austro-ungarico), i confini dell'Ungheria uscita dalla guerra non comprendevano: I confini definitivi vennero delineati dal trattato del Trianon nel 1920. On 31 October 1918, in mid of armistice negotiations, the Aster Revolution in Budapest brought liberal Hungarian aristocrat Count Mihály Károlyi, a supporter of the Allied Powers, to power. Panduan pengucapan: Pelajari cara mengucapkan Trattato del Trianon dalam Bahasa Italia dari penutur aslinya. Un'ulteriore disposizione stabiliva che in Ungheria non potessero essere costruite ferrovie con più di un binario. [124] Meanwhile, the territory of present-day Czech Republic (Kingdom of Bohemia) owned 75% of the whole industrial capacity of former Austria-Hungary. Il 31 ottobre 1918, a Timișoara venne proclamata la Repubblica del Banato e il governo ungherese ne riconobbe l'indipendenza. Furthermore, ethnically diverse Transylvania, with an overall Romanian majority (53.8% – 1910 census data or 57.1% – 1919 census data or 57.3% – 1920 census data), was treated as a single entity at the peace negotiations and was assigned in its entirety to Romania. [26] He even organized covert contacts with British and French diplomats in Switzerland during the war. [52] The treaty of peace in final form was submitted to the Hungarians on 6 May and signed by them in Grand Trianon[53] on 4 June 1920, entering into force on 26 July 1921. (2018), Rudolf Chmel, "Syndrom of Trianon in Hungarian Foreign Policy and Act on Hungarians Living in Neighboring Countries.". The present day location of each area is given in parenthesis. [6] Though the areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries had a majority of non-Hungarians, in them lived 3.3 million Hungarians – 31% – who were now in a minority status. [117] The perceived humiliation of the treaty became a dominant theme in inter-war Hungarian politics, analogous with the German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. These decisions and their consequences have been the cause of deep resentment in Hungary ever since. To make the situation even more complex, in the multilingual kingdom there were territories with ethnically mixed populations where people spoke two or even three languages natively. All the formal districts of Austria-Hungary used to rely on each other's exports for growth and welfare; by contrast, 5 years after the treaty, traffic of goods between the countries dropped to less than 5% of its former value. .mw-parser-output .chiarimento{background:#ffeaea;color:#444444}.mw-parser-output .chiarimento-apice{color:red}Alcuni demografi, comunque, ritengono che il censimento del 1910 avesse sovrastimato la percentuale di magiari, argomentando con il fatto che ci sarebbero stati risultati differenti nei precedenti censimenti del regno e nei censimenti successivi[senza fonte]. After the military victory of Croatian forces led by, Badescu, Ilie. [54] The United States did not ratify the Treaty of Trianon. 1778-79: The private theatre of Marie Antoinette at the Petit Trianon. Point ten announced Wilson's "wish" that the peoples of the Austria-Hungary be given autonomy—a point that Vienna rejected.[23]. Treaty of Trianon, and Protocol THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, and CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, The Kingdom of Hungary was the main supplier of wheat, rye, barley and other various goods in the empire and these comprised a large portion of the empire's exports. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary. This sum sunk to a mere 8.6 million crowns after the treaty took effect and resulted in a starving of capital in other regions of the former empire.[132]. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Treaty of Trianon article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-08-23 15:01:21. Furthermore, they believed the treaty would help toward a new era of dependence on international law, the fraternity of nations, equal rights, and human liberty as well as aid civilisation in the effort to free humanity from international violence.[71]. By the end of October 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Army was so fatigued that its commanders were forced to seek a ceasefire. 1920. június 4. [12] In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours. the Treaty of Trianon France started or planned to form new allies. The Allies were indifferent as to the exact line of the newly defined border between Austria and Hungary. "The Afterlife of the Treaty of Trianon.". French diplomats played the major role in the drafting, and Hungarians were kept in the dark. Document 246. The Treaty of Trianon (French: Traité de Trianon, Hungarian: Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference and was signed in the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles on 4 June 1920. Ovviamente questi non furono mai rispettati dai paesi eredi. The Trianon-treaty was the result of negotiations between Hungary and several countries of the Entente. During the Sopron area plebiscite, the polling stations were supervised by army officers belonging to the Allied powers. The de facto temporary borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. The American war aim was end aggressive militarism as shown by Berlin and Vienna. According to another source, population distribution in 1910 looked as follows: The territories of the former Hungarian Kingdom that were ceded by the treaty to neighbouring countries in total (and each of them separately) had a majority of non-Hungarian nationals; however, the Hungarian ethnic area was much larger than the newly established territory of Hungary,[91] therefore 30 percent of the ethnic Hungarians were under foreign authority. G. Gratz and R. Schuller, Die Wirtschaftliche Zusammenbruch Oesterreich Ungarns (Vienna. 4 June - Treaty of Trianon, Treaty of Peace between the Allies and Hungary. in Joseph Held, ed., Miller, Vol. [14][15], Only one plebiscite was allowed about the disputed borders on the former territory of Kingdom of Hungary after World War I. Király, Béla K. and László Veszprémy, eds. [17] This caused a rapidly escalating July Crisis resulting in Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, followed quickly by the entry of most European powers into the First World War. Vertrag von Trianon . "The United States' Role in the Shaping of the Peace Treaty of Trianon. Trianon.jpg 1,121 × 806; 373 KB. Original from the University of California Czechoslovakia took control of Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia. Importance of Hungary. Beside exclusion of the previously mentioned territories, they did not include: By the Treaty of Trianon, the cities of Pécs, Mohács, Baja and Szigetvár, which were under Serb-Croat-Slovene administration after November 1918, were assigned to Hungary. Variously mentioned throughout Glenny, Misha. ("No, no, never!") This could be attributed to the introduction of aggressive nationalistic policies by local political leaders. Peter Hanák, "Hungary on a fixed course: An outline of Hungarian history, 1918–1945." As a further illustration of this issue, post-Trianon Hungary produced 500% more agricultural goods than it needed for itself[126] and mills around Budapest (some of the largest ones in Europe at the time) operated at 20% level. D'altra parte, la diversità etnica dell'Ungheria diminuì considerevolmente: il numero di persone di altra nazionalità entro le frontiere della nuova Ungheria dopo il trattato fu appena superiore al 10%. WikiMatrix WikiMatrix . [104] Compared to the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, post-Trianon Hungary had 60% less population and its political and economic footprint in the region was significantly reduced. T. Faltus, Povojnova hospodarska kriza v rokoch 1912–1923 v Ceskoslovensku [Postwar Depression in Czechoslovakia] (Bratislava, 1966). After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this cease-fire line, the Entente powers asked Hungary (Vix Note) to acknowledge the new Romanian territorial gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Anna Menyhért, "The Image of the "Maimed Hungary" in 20th Century Cultural Memory and the 21st Century Consequences of an Unresolved Collective Trauma: The Impact of the Treaty of Trianon." Trattato del Trianon translation in Italian-English dictionary. The men of the Hungarian Red Army were recruited mainly from the volunteers of the Budapest proletariat. The communist government followed the Soviet model: the party established its terror groups (like the infamous Lenin Boys) to "overcome the obstacles" in the Hungarian countryside. Ufficio Centrale di Statistica, Mappa dei confini ungheresi nel novembre/dicembre 1918, Il Trattato del Trianon e lo scorporamento dell'Ungheria, Il Trattato del Trianon e le sue tragiche conseguenze, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trattato_del_Trianon&oldid=112504118, Accordi diplomatici della prima guerra mondiale, Voci non biografiche con codici di controllo di autorità, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo, Riassetto dell'Europa danubiana, con ampie cessioni territoriali a favore di, sempre in conformità al trattato di Saint-Germain, gran parte del. For example, in the territory what is today Slovakia (then part of Upper Hungary) 18% of the Slovaks, 33% of the Hungarians and 65% of the Germans were bilingual. Representatives of small nations living in the former Austria-Hungary and active in the Congress of Oppressed Nations regarded the treaty of Trianon for being an act of historical righteousness[70] because a better future for their nations was "to be founded and durably assured on the firm basis of world democracy, real and sovereign government by the people, and a universal alliance of the nations vested with the authority of arbitration" while at the same time making a call for putting an end to "the existing unbearable domination of one nation over the other" and making it possible "for nations to organize their relations to each other on the basis of equal rights and free conventions". At the heart of the dispute lay fundamentally different views on the nature of the Hungarian presence in the disputed territories. The French sided with their allies the Romanians who had a long policy of cultural ties to France since the country broke from the Ottoman Empire (due in part to the relative ease at which Romanians could learn French)[114] although Clemenceau personally detested Bratianu. in Joseph Held, ed., Jeszenszky, Géza. In 1918 Germany tried to overwhelm the Allies on the Western Front; it failed. The Hungarian political attitude towards Trianon was summed up in the phrases Nem, nem, soha! The Romanians had suffered a higher relative casualty rate in the war than either Britain[105][106][107] or France[106][107][108] so it was considered that the Western powers had a moral debt to repay. The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. The Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. Ad esempio rimasero circa 450-550.000 tedeschi (550.062 secondo il censimento del 1920, 477.153 secondo il censimento del 1930), 140.000 slovacchi (141.877 secondo il censimento del 1920, 104.786 secondo il censimento del 1939), e circa 45.000 serbi e croati (47.337 croati e 7.031 serbi secondo il censimento del 1930). The Hungarian Red Army achieved some military success early on: under the leadership of Colonel Aurél Stromfeld, it ousted Czechoslovak troops from the north and planned to march against the Romanian Army in the east. Hungary was progressing economically very well during late 19 th century into the twentieth century. Ad es. The Treaty of Trianon was signed between the Allied Forces and Kingdom of Hungary. [7][8][9][10] The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, and the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist. In addition, the structure of its economy collapsed, because it had relied on other parts of the pre-war Kingdom. (Thesis, University of Central Florida, 2006), Bihari, Peter. There, between 25–30 May, Romanian forces were required to defend their position against Hungarian attacks. In absolute terms, Romanian troops had considerably fewer casualties than either Britain or France, however. Il Grande Trianon dove tra l'altro venne firmato il Trattato del Trianon. Treaty of Trianon, (1920), treaty concluding World War I and signed by representatives of Hungary on one side and the Allied Powers on the other. The Communists remained bitterly unpopular[45] in the Hungarian countryside, where the authority of that government was often nonexistent. This was later known as the Red Terror in Hungary. While the territories that were now outside Hungary's borders had non-Hungarian majorities overall, there also existed some sizeable areas with a majority of Hungarians, largely near the newly defined borders. Guarda le traduzioni di ‘Trattato del Trianon’ in Bulgaro. Kurzfassung: Der Friedensvertrag von Trianon regelte nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg die Bedingungen für Ungarn.Er ist einer der Pariser Vorortverträge, die den Krieg formal beendeten.. Ungarn wurde Ende 1919 nach Paris zu den Friedensverhandlungen eingeladen. 1922. ", Wilfried Fest, Peace or Partition, The Habsburg Monarchy and British Policy, 1914–1918 (New York: St. Martin's 1978). Il trattato venne firmato il 4 giugno 1920 nel palazzo del Grand Trianon di Versailles (Francia) Iván T. Berend and G. Ranki, Economic Development of East Central Europe (New York, 1974). Dopo il 1918, l'Ungheria non ebbe più accesso al mare, che invece il Regno di Ungheria aveva avuto, attraverso i territori dell'odierna Croazia, per oltre 800 anni. p.37. Hungary also renounced all privileges in territories outside Europe that were administered by the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy. By the time the victorious Allies arrived in France, the treaty was already settled, which made the outcome inevitable. Published by C. Scribner's sons, 1937 The census of 1910 classified the residents of the Kingdom of Hungary by their native languages[78] and religions, so it presents the preferred language of the individual, which may or may not correspond to the individual's ethnic identity. There are several reasons for this population decrease, some of which were spontaneous assimilation and certain state policies, like Slovakization, Romanianization, Serbianisation. Item notes: pt. Per sopprimere le aspirazioni magiare ed accerchiare l'Ungheria in tutti i sensi, i paesi beneficiari del trattato del Trianon (Regno di Romania, Regno di Jugoslavia, Cecoslovacchia) formarono la Piccola Intesa. In their eyes, that was for the damned in Hell." [63][66][67] The Allies assigned territories that were mostly populated by non-Hungarian ethnicities to successor states, but also allowed these states to absorb sizeable territories that were mainly inhabited by Hungarian-speaking populations. Treaty of Trianon (1920) Redefinition of borders after World War I; Hungary loses about 72% of its territory. Some conditions of the Treaty were similar to those imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. [citation needed] Other important factors were the Hungarian migration from the neighbouring states to Hungary or to some western countries as well as decreased birth rate of Hungarian populations. As a consequence of the treaty, all the competitive industries of the former empire were compelled to close doors, as great capacity was met by negligible demand owing to economic barriers presented in the form of the newly defined borders. [16], On 28 June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. However, these new or enlarged countries also absorbed large slices of territory with a majority of ethnic Hungarians or Hungarian speaking population. Menyhért, Anna. 443 Le condizioni militari furono simili a quelle imposte alla Germania dal trattato di Versailles (1919); l'esercito ungherese venne limitato a 35.000 uomini e dovette rinunciare alla coscrizione obbligatoria. Pastor, Peter. Compared with the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary, these temporary borders did not include: The territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja (which included most of the pre-war Hungarian counties of Baranya, Bács-Bodrog, Torontál, and Temes) came under military control by the Kingdom of Serbia and political control by local South Slavs. It regulated the status of the independent Hungarian state[citation needed] and defined its borders generally within the ceasefire lines established in November–December 1918 and left Hungary as a landlocked state that included 93,073 square kilometres (35,936 sq mi), 28% of the 325,411 square kilometres (125,642 sq mi) that had constituted the pre-war Kingdom of Hungary (the Hungarian half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy). Hungarian troops prevailed and the Romanian Army retreated to its bridgehead at Tokaj. Il numero di ungheresi in queste province, basato sul censimento del 1910 era: La popolazione ungherese in tutte queste regioni diminuì dopo il trattato, anche se minoranze ungheresi risiedono ancora oggi nei paesi limitrofi. "Trianon and the Predestination of Hungarian Politics: A Historiography of Hungarian Revisionism, 1918–1944." Adolf Hitler, applicando sino alle estreme conseguenze i principi nazionalisti, pianificò l'annessione alla Germania di tutti i territori fuori dai confini della madrepatria abitati da Tedeschi, e avviò a soluzione finale l'eliminazione degli Ebrei. It formally ended World War I between most of the Allies of World War I[1] and the Kingdom of Hungary. Toomey, "History, nationalism and democracy: myth and narrative in Viktor Orbán’s 'illiberal Hungary'." [51] The lengthy negotiation process was recorded on a daily basis by János Wettstein [hu], deputy first secretary of the Hungarian delegation. [37] Demarcation lines defining the territory to remain under Hungarian control were made. Il principio della riorganizzazione, su base etnica, della carta dell'Europa, accolto dal trattato in base ai Quattordici punti di Woodrow Wilson, paradossalmente - secondo lo storico britannico Eric Hobsbawm - fornì una giustificazione alle successive pulizie etniche e, addirittura, all'Olocausto degli Ebrei[2]. Accordingly, the Allies assumed without question that the minority ethnic groups of the pre-war kingdom wanted to leave Hungary. Béla Kun, leader of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, then turned the Hungarian Red Army on the Romanian Army and attacked at the Tisza river on 20 July 1919. It was signed on June 4, 1920, at the Trianon Palace at Versailles, France .