Coordinates: 36°24′N 10°37′E / 36.400°N 10.617°E / 36.400; 10.617, List of twin towns and sister cities in Tunisia,,,,,,_Tunisia&oldid=988648506, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 November 2020, at 12:39. to the tune of Guantanamera.[82]. While this was basically the truth, most citizens distrusted politicians, and Craxi's defence got no sympathy by the citizens and may have even served to enrage them further. De Martino, pointing to a new alliance with the Communists, was forced to resign and opened a serious crisis within the party. Bettino campaigned for his father and later joined the Italian Socialist Party at the age of 17. [56] The Church's position as the sole state-supported religion of Italy was also ended, replacing the state financing with a personal income tax called the otto per mille, to which other religious groups, Christian and non-Christian, also have access. As the Mani Pulite investigations were to uncover in the 1990s, personal corruption was endemic in Italian society; while many politicians, including Craxi, would justify corruption with the necessities of a democracy, political leaders at many levels enjoyed a lifestyle that should have been well out of their reach, while most parties continued having financial problems. Some bribes didn't go to the parties at all. This did not actually happen because of the rise of Lega Nord and the Tangentopoli scandals.[81]. Craxi was the only political leader, together with Amintore Fanfani and Marco Pannella, to declare himself available to a "humanitarian solution" that would allow the liberation of Christian Democrat statesman, drawing heavy criticism on the so-called "party of firmness", primarily driven by the Communists. E così, agli inizi del 1997, per una settimana circa, Paolo Semeraro si trova a varcare il portone di Route El Fawara ad Hammamet in Tunisia, da … Against trade union resistance, the Craxi government reacted by abolishing wage-price indexation (a mechanism known as scala mobile or "escalator"), under which wages had been increased automatically in line with inflation. [48], During Craxi's tenure as Prime Minister, Italy became the fifth largest industrial nation and gained entry into the G7 Group of most industrialised nations. The initial taking of the town was successful as the Spanish managed to climb the walls and open the gates but then there was an unexpected call to retreat - it could not be later determined where or how it originated. [15], Craxi was born in Milan on 24 February 1934. [35], In 1978 Craxi decided to change the party logo. [46] The Italian Socialist Party reached its post-war apex when it increased its share of votes in the general election of 1987. His political career ended in less than two years. Craxi, noting that the legal process had accelerated in his case, claimed that his prosecution was politically motivated. Then it came under Spanish and Turkish rule. The reported number of inhabitants varies from 100,000 to 400,000 and the population quadruples due to tourists' arrival in the summer. The Christian Democrats accepted this compromise to avoid a new election. In 1970 after the end of the PSU alliance, Craxi became Vice Secretary of the PSI, as proposed by Giacomo Mancini. [36], In July 1978, following the resignation of President Giovanni Leone, after a lengthy parliamentary battle, Craxi was able to bring together a large number of votes, electing Sandro Pertini, as new President; Pertini was the first Socialist to hold this position. La riforma della scala mobile, Il libro che racconta di Craxi e di quando tagliò la scala mobile, Il debito pubblico italiano, quando e chi lo ha formato, Gli accordi di Villa Madama: dalla Costituente a Craxi, Craxi al congresso del PSOE: "Obiettivo unità socialista", Sigonella, così Reagan capitolò davanti all’ira funesta di Craxi, Quella volta che a Sigonella Craxi rese l'Italia un paese sovrano, La Nato, Sigonella, Craxi e Spadolini. Meanwhile, in November 1964, he was re-elected city councilor in Milan, continuing his public commitment as assessor for Charity and Assistance in the council of Pietro Bucalossi. [89] Craxi's tomb is in the small Christian cemetery in Hammamet; according to some sources it is orientated towards Italy,[90] but, following a 2017 survey, this has revealed to be erroneous. [53] In the field of family welfare, legislation was enacted in 1984 and 1986 that changed the family allowance system "so that people most in need received larger amounts and coverage was progressively reduced to the point of termination once certain income levels were exceeded. As representative of PSI at the Socialist International, Craxi formed ties with some of the main European future leaders, like Willy Brandt, Felipe González, François Mitterrand, Mário Soares, Michel Rocard and Andreas Papandreou. [85] The European Court ruled in his favor once, in the case of wiretapped conversations illegally made public. [6] Craxi's government and party were also supported by future Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, a media magnate and personal friend of Craxi. [27], As responsible of the PSI foreign policy he supported, also financially, some socialist parties banned by the dictatorships of their respective countries, including the Spanish Socialist Workers Party, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement and the Chilean Socialist Party of Salvador Allende, of whom Craxi was a personal friend. [75], For the Libyan attack, Craxi's government denied the United States any rights of military overflight, as did France and Spain. In 1984, solidarity contracts (work-sharing arrangements to avoid redundancies) were introduced, while restrictions on part-time employment were relaxed. The PSI, that had obtained only 11%, threatened to leave the parliamentary majority unless Craxi was made Prime Minister. It is particularly known for jasmine, which is the namesake of the tourist resort of Yasmine Hammamet. With the ardor of those who drove merchants from the temple, Speaker Pertini ordered to drive away the "whips" from the aisle, accelerating the outcome of the presidential election in 1971 : European Observatory On Family Policies: National Family Policies In EC-Countries In 1990 by Wilfred Dumon in collaboration with Françoise Bartiaux, Tanja Nuelant, and experts from each of the member states, [ The American Society of International Law, "Agreement between the Italian Republic and the Holy See" (English translation)]. There were 1200 men gathered at the beach trying to get back to their ships but the wind had changed and conditions were difficult. Three hundred men took seven hundred prisoners, mostly women, and children because most of the men in the town had fled. Con la regia di Craxi e Dell’Utri, Craxi, González y Soares coinciden en que la incorporación de España y Portugal supone un nuevo impulso para la CEE. Craxi's funeral took place at the Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul in Tunis and saw a large participation of the indigenous population. Craxi was succeeded by two Socialist trade-unionists, first Giorgio Benvenuto and then by Ottaviano Del Turco. [40], Even if the PSI never became a serious electoral challenger either to the PCI or the Christian Democrats, its pivotal position in the political arena allowed it to claim the post of Prime Minister for Craxi after the 1983 general election. TUNISIA Craxi, in mille ad Hammamet per i 20 anni dalla morte. Ieri sera nella piccola chiesa cristiana di Hammamet, nell’omelia, durante la Messa per la commemorazione di Craxi, voluta dalla vedova, signora Anna, un prete il “Caso C.” lo ha risolto cosi: “Bettino ha amato e aiutato la Tunisia. His defence was therefore not to declare himself innocent, but everybody guilty. Chiesa sought Craxi's protection for nearly a month; but Craxi accused him of casting a shadow on the "most honest party in Italy." All over Hammamet, souvenirs crafted from jasmine can be found. Former Italian prime minister Bettino Craxi moved to Hammamet in 1994 as a fugitive. The level of public debt remains in excess of 100% of GDP today. A few months later Bettino returned to college, first in Como and then in Cantù, where he thought to start the seminary. [7][8], Craxi maintained strong links with many leaders of the European left, including François Mitterrand, Felipe González, Andreas Papandreou and Mário Soares and was one of the main representatives of Mediterranean or South European socialism. Si moltiplicano le iniziative in ricordo del leader socialista: è proprio la Fondazione Craxi a organizzare il viaggio del ventennale in Tunisia, "Hammamet 2020". [14] This name was given him by his long-time ally and rival at the same time, Christian Democratic leader Giulio Andreotti. Hammamet (Arabic: حمامات ‎ ḥamāmāt) is a town in Tunisia. Ovvero il lungo e complicato esilio di Bettino Craxi ad Hammamet. [18] Vittorio Craxi stood in the 1948 general election for the Popular Democratic Front, a political alliance between Socialists and Communists. [20], During this period he engaged for the first time in public speaking, organizing conferences, debates, film screenings, and in 1956 he became part of the PSI Provincial Committee in Milan, and leader of the Socialist Youth Federation.[21]. Alonso de Contreras participated and tells the story in his autobiography. The authorisation was denied on 29 April 1993 after Craxi gave an emotional speech. Il cimitero cristiano di Hammamet, dove è sepolto Craxi, è troppo piccolo per contenere la folla arrivata per la commemorazione. Benedetto "Bettino" Craxi (UK: /ˈkræksi/ KRAK-see,[1] Italian: [betˈtiːno ˈkraksi], Sicilian: [ˈkɾaʃʃɪ];[2] 24 February 1934 – 19 January 2000)[3] was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987. At the same time, the PSI increased its presence in the big state-owned enterprises, and became heavily involved in corruption and illegal party funding which would eventually result in the Mani pulite investigations. [16], During World War II, the young Craxi was sent to the Catholic college Edmondo De Amicis due to his unruly character and to protect him from fascist violence in retaliation for his father's anti-fascist activities. In July 1992, Craxi finally realised the situation was serious and that he himself was going to be hit by the unfolding scandal. ROMA – Perché Bettino Craxi è stato lasciato a morire a Hammamet, in Tunisia, nel gennaio del Duemila? It is located in the south-eastern section of Cap Bon and is part of the Nabeul Governorate. Most of them came from the left-wing of the party, as Del Turco himself did. [66], Internationally, Craxi is perhaps best remembered for an incident in October 1985, when he refused the request of US President Ronald Reagan to extradite the hijackers of the cruise ship Achille Lauro. Meanwhile, he attended the faculty of Law in University of Milan and then the faculty of Political Science in Urbino, Craxi founded the "Socialist University Nucleus" joining the "New University" group and adhering to the CUDI (Italian Democratic University Centre), the student group that supported the left-wing forces. It was eventually eliminated altogether in 1985. However, he was able to consolidate power and implement his policies. Quattro gli eventi tenuti fra il 18 e il 19 gennaio. Among other things, both sides declared: "The principle of the Catholic religion as the sole religion of the Italian State, originally referred to by the Lateran Pacts, shall be considered to be no longer in force". FLASHMOB A MILANO Non solo iniziative in Tunisia, però, per ricordare la morte di Bettino Craxi, avvenuta 19 gennaio del 2000 ad Hammamet: “Petali di libertà” è infatti il titolo simbolico del flashmob convocato per domenica Hammamet (Arabic: حمامات‎ Ḥammāmāt, literally "Baths") is a town in Tunisia. Alcune centinaia di persone sono arrivate al cimitero cristiano di Hammamet, in Tunisia, per la cerimonia a 20 anni esatti dalla morte di Bettino Craxi, che qui è sepolto. Craxi died on 19 January 2000, at the age of 65, from complications of diabetes. Nella Marina Hammamet si tiene annualmente il festival musicale Night in Tunisia… The following picture from Wikimedia, extracted from this survey, shows the actual orientation of the tomb: I tre più potenti? Around Hammamet, suburbs are being built as migrants from the southern region of the country come to find employment. [41] The electoral support for the Christian Democrats was significantly weakened, leaving it with 32.9% of the vote, compared to the 38.3% it gained in 1979. He died and was buried there in 2000. In 1968 general election Craxi was elected for the first time at the Chamber of Deputies with 23,788 votes, in the constituency of Milan–Pavia. Acquaviva, Gennaro, and Luigi Covatta. [5] He always rejected the charges of corruption while admitting to the illegal funding which permitted costly political activity, the PSI being less financially powerful than the two larger parties, Christian Democracy and the Communists. It was a town (now in the suburbs of Hammamet) that became a Roman colony in the 2nd century. Forse lo Stato africano della Tunisia su Craxi si dimostrò molto più “europeo” dell’Italia. An ironic note was that the disgraced remnant of the party was excluded from Parliament by the minimum 4% threshold introduced by Bettino Craxi himself during one of his previous governments. (from a traditional stadium chant). [34] On 9 May 1978 Moro's body was found in the trunk of a Renault 4 in Via Caetani after 55 days of imprisonment, during which Moro was submitted to a political trial by the so-called "people's court" set up by the Brigate Rosse and the Italian government was asked for an exchange of prisoners. Craxism, although the term is considered derogatory today, was based on a synthesis of social democracy, socialism and social liberalism. Craxi received his first prosecution notice in December 1992. Rino Formica, a prominent member of the Socialist Party in those years, wittily said that "the convent is poor, but the friars are rich". He made an appeal before the Chamber of Deputies in which he claimed that everyone knew of the widespread irregularities in the public financing of Italian parties, accused the deputies of hypocrisy and cowardice, and called for all MPs to protect the Socialists from prosecution as a show of solidarity. In particular, he sought and managed to distance the party from the Communists, bringing it into an alliance with Christian Democracy and other centrist parties, while maintaining a leftist and reformist profile. Agnelli, Craxi e De Mita, Bettino Craxi, discorso sul finanziamento politico, Camera dei Deputati, 3 luglio 1992, Craxi, il ricordo di Berlusconi: "Mi manca, simbolo di dignità", Berlusconi, 20 anni fa la discesa in campo. The last main turning point of Craxi's career began in February 1992, when Socialist MP Mario Chiesa was arrested by police while taking a 7 million lira bribe from a cleaning service firm. [44][45] Craxi had a firm grasp on a party previously troubled by factionalism, and tried to distance it from the Communists and to bring it closer to Christian Democrats and other parties; his objective was to create an Italian version of European reformist socialist parties, like the German SPD or the French Socialist Party. He successfully boosted the country's GNP and controlled inflation. In the 1994 general election, what was left of PSI allied itself to the Alliance of Progressives dominated by the post-communist incarnation of the PCI, the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS). In Italy, the main critics of Craxism as well as the figure of Craxi are the former Communists (including most members of the Democratic Party) and some media left-wing press (Il Fatto Quotidiano, il manifesto, L'Espresso and la Repubblica) while the biggest supporters are the Italian Socialist Party of Riccardo Nencini and various politicians of The People of Freedom and the centre-right as Silvio Berlusconi, Renato Brunetta, Maurizio Sacconi, Stefano Caldoro and Stefania Craxi, Bettino's daughter. The judges in Milan were put under scrutiny several times by different governments (especially Silvio Berlusconi's first government in 1994), but no evidence of any misconduct was ever found. Craxi never apologised, stating he had done nothing that everybody else had not been doing, and that he was being unjustly singled out and persecuted. Thanks to its beaches, it is a popular destination for swimming and water sports and is the primary tourist destination in Tunisia. Hammamet è diventata famosa in Italia per aver ospitato Bettino Craxi nel corso della sua latitanza dal 1994 fino alla sua morte. In 1956, following the Soviet invasion of Hungary, Craxi with a group of loyalists committed himself to the detachment of the Socialist Party by the pro-Communist policy, but he failed: his proposed output of the Socialist Youth Movement by the International Organisation of Democratic Youth was rejected. However, upon coming out of the Hotel Raphael, where he lived, he received a salvo of coins that members of the Democratic Party of the Left and the right-wing Italian Social Movement threw at him as a sign of their disgust. [37], Craxi, on the one hand explicitly distanced himself from Leninism referring to forms of authoritarian socialism, and on the other he showed supports to the civil society movements and to the battles for civil rights, mainly proposed by the Radical Party, he oversaw its image through the media. [77] This caused the immediate fall of the cabinet and the formation of a new government led by the long-time Christian Democratic politician Amintore Fanfani. Former PSI militants and other Italians arrived in Tunisia to make the last greetings to their leader. Finisce così Hammamet di Gianni Amelio, il film sugli ultimi sei mesi di vita di Craxi. In any event, the victory of the "No" campaign in the referendum called by the Italian Communist Party was a major victory for Craxi. Moro-Craxi: fermezza e trattativa trent'anni dopo / a cura di Gennaro Acquaviva e Luigi Covatta ; prefazione di Piero Craveri. [49] However, inflation was often in the double digits. [74] Shalgham's statement was also confirmed by Margherita Boniver, foreign affairs chief of Craxi's Socialist Party at the time. In 1601 it was the object of a successful Spanish attack. Questions were asked about the so-called ENIMONT 'super-bribe' which the PSI and DC had jointly received and democratically shared. 189-233, "Craxi, Benedetto (Bettino)" in Mark Gilbert, Robert K. Nilsson, "The A to Z of Modern Italy", pp. [65] He also played a role in the 1987 seizure of power in Tunisia by Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. It borders a Hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) and a Hot semi-arid climate (BSh) due to dry ground and hot temperatures in the summer. [55], In 1984, Craxi signed an agreement with the Vatican City that revised the Lateran Treaty. Il film di Gianni Amelio è sull’ultima parte della vita nel rifugio di Hammamet in Tunisia. Non andrò di certo a vedere il fim Hammamet diretto da Gianni Amelio. Craxi was born in Milan on 24 February 1934. He led the third-longest government in the Italian Republic and he is considered one of the most powerful and prominent politicians of the so-called First Republic. In the end, the Socialist party went from 14% of the vote to a virtual nil. Bettino Craxi, all'anagrafe Benedetto Craxi (Milano, 24 febbraio 1934 – Hammamet, 19 gennaio 2000), è stato un politico italiano, Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri dal 4 agosto 1983 al 18 aprile 1987 e Segretario del Partito Socialista Italiano dal 15 luglio 1976 all'11 febbraio 1993..