[245] However, this[246] and Saudi Arabia's role in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, particularly the stationing of US troops on Saudi soil from 1991, prompted the development of a hostile Islamist response internally. An investigation led by The Sunday Telegraph, exposed the condition of African migrants who were detained in Saudi Arabia allegedly for containing Covid-19 in the kingdom. Over 100,000 English translations of Italian words and phrases. This video is unavailable. [72] The second stage of the kingdom saw the transformation of Dedan from a mere city-state of which only influence they exerted was inside their city walls, to a kingdom that encompass much wider domain that marked the pinnacle of Lihyan civilization. Via Pietro Raimondi, 14 00198 Roma - RM Tel +39 06 88 40 807 Tel +39 06 85 51 641 Fax +39 06 85 58 658 consolato@arabia-saudita.it. The Guinness World Records also took into consideration their production capacity of 15000 tonnes of high quality of olive oil, while the kingdom consumes double that. [302] Indeed, Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia;[303] in ISIL-occupied Raqqa, in mid-2014, all 12 judges were Saudi. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south; it is separated from the Sinai (Egypt) in the north-west by the Gulf of Aqaba. [69] It is common view that Midian designated a confederation of tribes, the sedentary element settled in the Hijaz while its nomadic affiliates pastured, and sometimes pillaged as far away land as Palestine. [171] Investigations by both US and UK authorities resulted, in 2010, in plea bargain agreements with the company, by which it paid $447 million in fines but did not admit to bribery. [324] In 2017, Saudi Arabia signed a 110 billion dollar arms deal with the United States. Per capita income fell from a high of $11,700 at the height of the oil boom in 1981 to $6,300 in 1998. [56] A 2011 study found that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia. "[256][257] In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Saudi Arabia, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs and other Muslim minority groups in the Xinjiang region. Arabia Saudita İspanyolca Arabia Saudita kelimelerinin İngilizce karşılığı. [76], The Lihyanites fell into the hands of the Nabataeans around 65 BC upon their seizure of Hegra then marching to Tayma, and to their capital Dedan in 9 BC. [93] Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority. Businesses are closed three or four times a day[488] for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray. Thus the idea that colonists from Saudi Arabia had emigrated to southern Mesopotamia and founded the region's first sedentary culture was abandoned. The rights group said that Saudi Arabia is responsible for grave violations and that “the secretary-general has brought shame on the UN by removing the Saudi-led coalition from his ‘list of shame’ even as it continues to kill and injure children in Yemen.”[349], On 13 October 2020, Saudi Arabia failed in its attempt to win a place on UN human rights council, while Russia, China and Cuba were elected for the next three years. [90] Their rule extended from Iraq to Oman at its height and they too came under Ottoman suzerainty. At Jizan in the country's well-watered southwest, the Al-Hikmah Research Station is producing tropical fruits including pineapples, paw-paws, bananas, mangoes and guavas. [459], As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for "Saudization" (the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis) has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country. [400] According to data from Fitch Ratings, over two years starting from May 2016 Saudi Arabia went from having zero debt to raising $68 billion in dollar-denominated bonds and syndicated loans—one of the fastest rates among emerging economies. [572][573], In April 2017, bin Salman announced a project to build one of the world's largest cultural, sports and entertainment cities in Al Qidiya, southwest of Riyadh. L’Arabia Saudita (oficialament lo Reiaume d’Arabia Saudita) es un estat independent qu'ocupa la màger part de la Peninsula Aràbia. [3] Similarly, The Chronicle of Higher Education wrote in 2010 that "the country needs educated young Saudis with marketable skills and a capacity for innovation and entrepreneurship. L'Aràbia Saudita (en àrab العربية السعودية, al-ʿArabiyya as-Saʿūdiyya) és un regne del sud-oest d'Àsia que ocupa la major part de la península d'Aràbia i limita amb Jordània, l'Iraq i Kuwait al nord, amb el golf Pèrsic, Qatar i els Emirats Àrabs Units a l'est, amb Oman al sud-est, amb el Iemen al sud i amb la mar Roja a l'oest. Re dell'Arabia Saudita. Orari. These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. They are funding something else, which may down the road lead to individuals being radicalised and becoming fodder for terrorism," Patey said. These rock engravings date back more than 8,000 years, making them the earliest depictions of dogs in the world. [529] Other events since the GEA's creation have included comedy shows, professional wrestling events and monster truck rallies. [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in the West to modern-day Pakistan in the East) in a matter of decades. In March 1992, he introduced the "Basic Law", which emphasized the duties and responsibilities of a ruler. [142] The main topographical feature is the central plateau which rises abruptly from the Red Sea and gradually descends into the Nejd and toward the Persian Gulf. [521], In July 2019, UNESCO signed a letter with the Saudi Minister of Culture of In which Saudi Arabia contribute US$25 million to UNESCO for the preservation of heritage.[522]. The State of Lihyan: A New Perspective – p. 192, Rohmer, J. The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990. The country possesses the world’s second-largest proven oil reserves (>15% of global resources) and, at current rates of extraction, its oil will last for over 60 years. In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector (especially in the southwest but not only) based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc. [604], The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. [508] Demolished structures include the mosque originally built by Muhammad's daughter Fatima, and other mosques founded by Abu Bakr (Muhammad's father-in-law and the first Caliph), Umar (the second Caliph), Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law and the fourth Caliph), and Salman al-Farsi (another of Muhammad's companions). However, the superstar players Lacey Evans and Natalya were required to cover their arms and legs by wearing bodysuits during the fight, instead of the more revealing gear that they would normally wear. The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,[447] as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam (apostasy) and punishes it by death. For the next five years, he administered the two parts of his dual kingdom as separate units. Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment. It is likely that Tarout Island was the main port and the capital of Dilmun. The disclosure raised concerns regarding Riyadh’s aggressive interest in developing atomic weapons program. [610] In 2016, 69.7% of the adult population was overweight and 35.5% was obese. [121], Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government. [499] Non-Muslim festivals like Christmas and Easter are not tolerated at all,[500] although there are nearly a million Christians as well as Hindus and Buddhists among the foreign workers. Within the framework of the 2016 National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision 2030, the kingdom allocated 900 million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage. Osama bin Laden was a Saudi citizen (until stripped of his citizenship in 1994) and was responsible for the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa and the 2000 USS Cole bombing near the port of Aden, Yemen. [112] Khalid's reign saw economic and social development progress at an extremely rapid rate, transforming the infrastructure and educational system of the country;[80] in foreign policy, close ties with the US were developed. [156] Ideological divisions include issues over the speed and direction of reform,[157] and whether the role of the ulema should be increased or reduced. [498] Shia also face systematic discrimination in employment, education, the justice system according to Human Rights Watch. [205][206][207] The 345 reported executions between 2007 and 2010 were all carried out by public beheading. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. [433], Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim[435] (officially, all are), and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim. [97] This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. ", "Tentative steps in Saudi Arabia: The king of Saudi Arabia shows some reformist credentials", "Support for shake-up of Saudi justice system", "When It Comes to Beheadings, ISIS Has Nothing Over Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia to abolish flogging – supreme court", "In landmark decision, Saudi Arabia to eliminate flogging punishment", "Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents", "Report: Saudi girl accepts lashing for assaulting headmistress", "The foreign policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Arab leaders issue resolutions, emphasize Gaza reconstruction efforts", Saudis and Extremism: 'Both the Arsonists and the Firefighters', "Old friends US and Saudi Arabia feel the rift growing, seek new partners", America Is Complicit in the Carnage in Yemen, Rights group blasts U.S. "hypocrisy" in "vast flood of weapons" to Saudi Arabia, despite war crimes, "Obama: Congress veto override of 9/11 lawsuits bill 'a mistake, "We finally know what Hillary Clinton knew all along – US allies Saudi Arabia and Qatar are funding Isis", "Saudi Arabia launces air attacks in Yemen", "Yemen conflict: US 'could be implicated in war crimes, "CIA using Saudi base for drone assassinations in Yemen", "The bizarre alliance between the US and Saudi Arabia is finally fraying", "The U.S. Might Be Better Off Cutting Ties With Saudi Arabia", "Trump signs off on $110B arms deal in Saudi Arabia", "US-Saudi Arabia ink historic 10-year weapons deal worth $350 billion as Trump begins visit", "WikiLeaks: The Saudis' Close but Strained Ties with Pakistan", "Iraq's foreign militants 'come from US allies, "Saudi Arabia and China launch 'digital Silk Road, "China's Xi Jinping calls Saudi king with pledge to boost ties", "Saudi Arabia, China Sign Deals Worth Up to $65 Billion", "Closer Ties: China And Saudi Arabia Sign $70 Billion in New Deals", "Wang Yi and Foreign Minister Adel bin Ahmed Al-Jubeir of Saudi Arabia Co-host the Third Meeting of the Political and Diplomatic Sub-committee of China-Saudi Arabia High-level Joint Committee", "Saudi Arabia's Mohammed bin Salman Defends China's Use of Concentration Camps for Muslims During Visit to Beijing", "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to fight 'terrorism, "Saudi crown prince defends China's right to put Uighur Muslims in concentration camps", "Saudi crown prince defended China's imprisonment of a million Muslims in internment camps, giving Xi Jinping a reason to continue his 'precursors to genocide, "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies? In September 2018, the Public Investment Fund completed a deal with a group of global lenders for a loan of $11 billion. The G20 summit is an annual gathering of world leaders and central bank executives from 19 countries and the European Union. Sia chapitala è Riad. [581], On 1 August 2019, Saudi Arabia allowed women to travel abroad, register a divorce or a marriage, and apply for official documents without the consent of a male guardian. Orari. Majority of Saudi Arabians also expressed a favorable view of China. Following the latter's final defeat, he took the title Sultan of Nejd in 1921. [334], Saudi Arabia remains one of the very few countries in the world not to accept the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. [23][24][25][26] The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture", with its global spread largely financed by the oil and gas trade. Economists "estimate only 30–40 percent of working-age Saudis hold jobs or actively seek work," the official employment rate of around 12 percent notwithstanding: Global Water Intelligence: Becoming a world-class water utility, April 2011. [180], By the 1970s, as a result of oil wealth and the modernization of the country initiated by King Faisal, important changes to Saudi society were under way and the power of the ulema was in decline. [citation needed] Saudi Arabia spends 8.8% of its gross domestic product on education, compared with the global average of 4.6%. [528] The farm covers 7730 hectares and has 5 million olive trees. The first was the Iranian Islamic Revolution. [555], The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,[556] with child marriage no longer common. [103] In 1902, Abdul Rahman's son, Abdul Aziz—later to be known as Ibn Saud—recaptured control of Riyadh bringing the Al Saud back to Nejd, creating the third "Saudi state". The militants involved were in part angered by what they considered to be the corruption and un-Islamic nature of the Saudi government. [240] On 20 May 2017, President Donald Trump and King Salman signed a series of letters of intent for Saudi Arabia to purchase arms from the United States totaling US$110 billion immediately,[241] and $350 billion over 10 years. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. La lingua uffiziala dal pajais è l'arab Questa pagina è vegnida modifitgada l'ultima giada ils 30 avust 2018 a las 16:13. [267] At least 56,000 people have been killed in armed violence in Yemen between January 2016 and October 2018. Clash Over Khashoggi Case", "Top U.S. [542], Saudi Arabia, in December 2019, came under fire for using Western sports to rehabilitate global image tarnished following the continued crackdown on dissidents. Translate Arabia Saudita. [407], Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. The confidential report obtained by the media house stated that the Kingdom was assisted by Chinese geologists to produce over 90,000 tonnes of uranium from three major deposits in the centre and northwest of Saudi, near the NEOM megacity development. [394] The cities will be spread around Saudi Arabia to promote diversification for each region and their economy, and the cities are projected to contribute $150 billion to the GDP. [464], On 13 August 2020, Human Rights Watch reported dozens of Euthopian migrants who had been forcibly expelled by Houthi forces, under the pretext of COVID-19 measures, were killed and detained by Saudi border guards.